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Year : 2023  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 85-92

Echocardiographic Evaluation of Cardiac Function in Infants of Mothers with Diabetes

1 Department of Pediatrics, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Shaad Abqari
Department of Pediatrics, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, AMU, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jiae.jiae_26_23

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Introduction: A large number of pregnancies are complicated by diabetes mellitus in the mother which is associated with the risk of various cardiac structural and functional complications in the neonates. A diagnostic tool is needed to detect these dysfunctions early. In contrast to conventional pulsed-wave Doppler, which is influenced by heart rate and the impact of volume changes on transmitral flow, tissue Doppler imaging is the mode of echocardiography that is relatively independent of the loading state. Two-dimensional (2D) speckle-tracking echocardiography-derived strain imaging is a new technology increasingly being used to estimate cardiac systolic and diastolic dysfunction and has superior prognostic value for predicting major adverse cardiac events. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiac function in neonates of mothers with diabetes on echocardiography and differences in the extent of cardiac dysfunction between neonates of well-controlled and poorly controlled mothers with diabetes. Methods: This is a cross-sectional observational study which was done on 152 neonates born to mothers with diabetes (22 overt vs. 130 gestational and 23 well-controlled vs. 129 poorly controlled) and 96 born to nondiabetic mothers. Three modes of echocardiography, i.e. M-mode, Doppler (pulsed wave and tissue), and 2D speckle-tracking echocardiography, were done and cardiac functions were compared among different groups. Results: Infants of diabetic mothers (IDMs) had lower ejection fraction on M-mode echocardiography and lower values of global longitudinal strain on 2D speckle-tracking echocardiography along with significantly lower values of mitral and tricuspid E velocity and E/A ratio with higher values of A velocity on pulsed-wave Doppler. Tissue Doppler showed higher left ventricle E/E' in IDM implying more systolic as well as diastolic dysfunction in IDM as compared to non-IDM. In neonates born to mothers with poorly controlled diabetes, Doppler showed lower values of mitral and tricuspid E/A ratio and left ventricle E'/A' ratio signifying more diastolic dysfunction as compared to neonates born to mothers having good glycemic control. Similarly, neonates born to mothers with pregestational diabetes had significantly deranged systolic and diastolic functions. Conclusions: IDMs have significant cardiac dysfunction on echocardiography which is also related to the degree of glycemic control and onset of diabetes.

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