|Year : 2022 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 227-235
Transesophageal Echocardiography for Mitral Valve Transcatheter Edge-to-Edge Repair
Nitin J Burkule1, Manish Bansal2
1 Department of Cardiology, Jupiter Hospital, Thane, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Cardiology, Medanta- The Medicity, Gurugram, Haryana, India
|Date of Submission||31-Jul-2022|
|Date of Acceptance||08-Aug-2022|
|Date of Web Publication||12-Nov-2022|
Dr. Nitin J Burkule
Department of Cardiology, Jupiter Hospital, E. Ex. Highway, Thane - 400 606, Maharashtra
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Transcatheter edge-to-edge repair (TEER) has emerged as a viable treatment option for patients with degenerative or functional severe mitral regurgitation (MR) who are at high risk for mitral valve surgery but have mitral valve anatomy suitable for TEER. The MitraClip and Pascal repair system are the two TEER devices currently approved for clinical use for transcatheter treatment of MR in selected patients. Of these two, the MitraClip has become a more established modality for TEER and is currently available in India. This review describes the role of echocardiography in patient selection and procedural guidance during TEER with MitraClip.
Keywords: COAPT trial, MitraClip, Pascal repair system, primary mitral regurgitation, secondary mitral regurgitation
|How to cite this article:|
Burkule NJ, Bansal M. Transesophageal Echocardiography for Mitral Valve Transcatheter Edge-to-Edge Repair. J Indian Acad Echocardiogr Cardiovasc Imaging 2022;6:227-35
|How to cite this URL:|
Burkule NJ, Bansal M. Transesophageal Echocardiography for Mitral Valve Transcatheter Edge-to-Edge Repair. J Indian Acad Echocardiogr Cardiovasc Imaging [serial online] 2022 [cited 2023 Feb 4];6:227-35. Available from: https://jiaecho.org/text.asp?2022/6/3/227/361063
| Introduction|| |
Transcatheter edge-to-edge repair (TEER) has emerged as a viable treatment option for patients with degenerative or functional severe mitral regurgitation (MR) who are at high risk for mitral valve surgery but have mitral valve anatomy suitable for TEER. The MitraClip and Pascal repair system are the two TEER devices currently approved for transcatheter treatment of MR in selected patients. Of these two, the MitraClip has become a more established modality for TEER and is currently available in India. This review describes the role of echocardiography in patient selection and procedural guidance during TEER with MitraClip.
| MitraClip Design|| |
The MitraClip is made of metal alloy with the clip arms covered with polyester fabric to promote fibrous tissue growth which eventually covers the clip and forms a tissue bridge between the anterior and posterior mitral leaflets (AML and PML, respectively) [Figure 1]. The MitraClip NT variant has 9 mm long and 4 mm wide clip arms and 17 mm wingspan at 120° clip opening, whereas the XT variant has 12 mm long and 4 mm wide clip arms with 22 mm wingspan at 120° clip opening. The NTW and XTW variants have 6 mm wide clip arms [Figure 1]. The “X” variants are used for larger valves with PML length >9 mm, to allow better reach for leaflet capture. The “W” variants are used for broad MR jets to reduce larger regurgitation volume by a single clip.
| Role of Echocardiography in Transcatheter Edge-to-Edge Repair with MitraClip|| |
Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is currently the only cardiac imaging modality capable of dynamic structural and functional evaluation of the mitral valve with high spatial-temporal resolution in both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) real-time imaging modes. This capability of 2D/3D TEE with color flow Doppler (CFD) has led TEE to play a central role in patient selection, procedural planning, and intraprocedural guidance for TEER. Unlike many other structural heart disease interventions, TEER is performed predominantly under TEE and fluoroscopy guidance, with no requirement of angiographic contrast administration.
Indication for transcatheter edge-to-edge repair
- Carpentier type II MR (AML or PML A2/P2 segment prolapse or flail): TEER may be considered in symptomatic patients, (class IIb B) if the following conditions are met:
- Eligible by echocardiographic criteria (discussed subsequently),
- A heart team evaluation considers the patient inoperable or at high surgical risk, and
- The procedure is not considered futile by the heart team.
- Secondary MR: TEER is beneficial in patients with persistent symptoms (with at least one heart failure hospitalization within the previous year or increased natriuretic peptide levels) without hemodynamic instability, shock, or ongoing inotropic or mechanical circulatory support, (class IIa B), if:
- On optimized guideline-directed medical therapy and, when indicated, cardiac resynchronization therapy,
- Eligible by echocardiographic criteria,
- Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) between 20% and 50%, and
- Not undergoing surgical revascularization.
The first step in patient selection is to quantify the severity of MR with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). Severe MR is defined quantitatively as follows:
- Effective regurgitant orifice area (EROA) by 2D proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) method >40 mm2 (a lower cutoff value of >30 mm2 may be acceptable in secondary MR due to elliptical regurgitant orifice)
- Regurgitant volume >60 mL (per beat) for primary MR and >45 mL in secondary MR (if low LV stroke volume)
- Regurgitant fraction >50%. In secondary MR, due to low stroke volume, regurgitant fraction is a more reliable measure of MR severity than regurgitant volume.
The second step is to evaluate the mechanism of MR and eligibility for TEER. A meticulous mitral valve evaluation with 2D/3D TTE, TEE, and CFD is required to ascertain the mechanism of MR. In primary degenerative MR, the mechanism involves prolapse or flail mitral leaflet segment, whereas in secondary MR, it is the leaflet tenting.
The TEER eligibility criteria on echocardiography are as follows:,
- No rheumatic heart disease
- No infective endocarditis
- LVEF 20%–50%
- LV end-systolic diameter <70 mm
- Leak from A2 to P2 scallops
- Single/dominant central jet
- Mitral valve orifice area (MVA) >4.0 cm2 on 3D TEE
- Baseline mitral valve mean gradient <3 mmHg
- Estimated pulmonary artery systolic pressure <70 mmHg
- No evidence of moderate or severe right ventricular systolic dysfunction
- Transseptal crossing height from mitral annulus >4 cm
- No calcification at the leaflet grasping site
- Secondary MR: Leaflet coaptation depth <11 mm and coaptation length >2 mm [Figure 2]
- Carpentier type II MR (A2/P2 prolapse/flail): Non-tethered PML length >10 mm, flail width <15 mm, and flail gap <10 mm [Figure 3].
|Figure 2: Echocardiographic criteria for suitability for transcatheter edge-to-edge repair in a patient with secondary mitral regurgitation|
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|Figure 3: Echocardiographic criteria for suitability for transcatheter edge-to-edge repair in a patient with degenerate mitral regurgitation. (a) A patient with flail anterior mitral leaflet, (b) a patient with flail posterior mitral leaflet. PML: Posterior mitral leaflet|
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The above criteria indicate the preferred mitral valve morphology for TEER. However, with experience, the operators are now increasingly tackling less suitable morphologies also.
The following echocardiography findings indicate nonsuitability for TEER:
- Carpentier type IIIA abnormality (e.g., rheumatic MR)
- Infective endocarditis
- Left atrial (LA)/LA appendage clot
- Calcification of the leaflets at the grasp site
- Mitral valve mean gradient >5 mmHg
- MVA <3 cm2 on 3D TEE
- Severe right ventricular systolic dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension unrelated to MR
- Atrial septal defect (ASD) closure device in situ
- Inferior vena cava thrombosis.
For every patient, the 2D/3D TTE and TEE should be reviewed together by the structural heart disease intervention team and the clinical and echocardiographic eligibility criteria, accuracy of MR severity, TEE image quality, and the patient-specific challenges of imaging and procedure should be thoroughly discussed.
The predictors of challenging procedure/suboptimal outcome are as follows:
- Commissural prolapse involving A1–P1 or A3–P3 scallops
- Large AML prolapse with ruptured chordae
- Multisegment prolapse/flail (Barlow's disease)
- Cleft in the leaflet as the major source of MR
- Previous mitral valve repair/ring annuloplasty surgery
- Severe mitral annular calcification involving PML with <5 mm of leaflet available for grasping
- Leaflet or chordal calcification at the grasping site
- Mobile PML length <7 mm
- Tethering height >11 mm in secondary MR
- MVA 3–4 cm2
- Mitral valve mean gradient 4–5 mmHg
- Small LA size (medial-lateral diameter <3.7 cm)
- Lipomatous interatrial septum (IAS), patent foramen ovale, or previous surgical ASD closure or small ASD device closure
- 3D mitral valve annular area >140 cm2
- Annular dilatation: Adynamic mitral valve annulus with mitral annular height <7 mm
- LV size >70 mm or LV end-diastolic volume >120 ml/m2.
Intraprocedural guidance and monitoring
2D/biplane and 3D TEE form the center-stage for guiding the TEER procedure. Fluoroscopy complements TEE to show the catheter trajectory, opening and closing of the clip arms, and the stability of the released clips. If intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) is used to guide the procedure (in patients who are difficult to image with TEE), it is always combined with TEE or TTE. 2D ICE provides excellent mitral valve imaging from the right atrium or right ventricular outflow tract or via transseptal approach. However, due to single-plane imaging, it has limitations in delineating the 3D orientation of the clip position. Volume ICE may have the potential to overcome this limitation in near future.
Following are the steps in guiding TEER with 2D/3D TEE:
- Define the leaflet target and major MR jet
- Guide the transseptal puncture
- Guide safe steering of steerable guiding catheter (SGC) in the LA to advance the clip delivery system (CDS) to the targeted leaflets
- Guide the alignment of clip arms perpendicular to the coaptation line
- Confirm leaflet capture within the clip arms during the grasp maneuver
- Assessment of MR reduction after clip arm closure and exclusion of significant mitral stenosis
- Assessment of IAS shunt and procedural complications once SGC is removed.
After anesthesia induction, with the patient usually in supine position, TEE image quality in the bicommissural (45°–60°) and LV outflow tract (LVOT, 120°–135°) views should be checked. Sometimes, slight left lateral repositioning of the patient with pillow support may help to improve the image quality. The mitral valve can be centralized in the image with retroflexion and rightward flexion of the TEE probe. Once the image optimization is done, the following parameters/measurements should be looked at:
- Obtain pulsed-wave (PW) Doppler spectral tracing of right and left superior pulmonary veins
- Obtain mitral valve PW Doppler velocity time integral for transmitral mean gradient
- Measure MVA by planimetry in mid-diastole at the tip of mitral leaflets, either using 3D or in transgastric short-axis en face 2D view of the mitral valve
- Obtain PW velocity time integral of the LVOT flow in the 2D TEE transgastric view as a surrogate for LV stroke volume
- Some of the latest echocardiography systems have the capability to automatically compute aortic and mitral stroke volumes and thus MR regurgitant volume and fraction from 3D CFD data. If this capability is available, then the same can be utilized for quick, automated assessment of MR severity at various stages of the TEER procedure.
- Look for any preexisting pericardial effusion. Rule out intracardiac clots.
Guiding transseptal puncture
Proper IAS puncture is crucial for a successful MitraClip procedure. Ideally, the IAS puncture site should be located posteriorly, at mid-fossa level, with approximately 4 cm distance from the annular plane to allow proper trajectory and maneuverability of SGC and CDS.
- While guiding the IAS puncture, the 2D TEE bicaval view (90°–120°) is used for superior-inferior orientation and the short-axis view (45°–60°) for anteroposterior orientation [Figure 4] and [Video 1]
- Using biplane imaging, one can set bicaval view as the primary image and follow the sharp tenting caused by the septal puncture needle as the needle is withdrawn from the superior vena cava into the LA. The orthogonal imaging plane should be constantly positioned on the tenting site to obtain the secondary short-axis image showing the needle tip location
- It is important to avoid the center of fossa ovalis, thick portion of the septum secundum, and the proximity to aorta or posterior atrial wall. Crossing through patent foramen ovale can lead to IAS tear and unfavorable trajectory. A highly mobile (aneurysmal) portion of IAS should be avoided as the puncture needle may injure the LA free wall
- Before septal puncture, the tenting site should be checked in 2D TEE, four-chamber view (0°–20°) to determine the distance between the puncture site and the mitral annular plane. Approximately 4–4.5 cm distance is considered adequate. If the leaflet coaptation is deeper in the LV, then <4 cm may also be acceptable. In contrast, if there is an excessive flail segment which needs to be grasped, then even >4.5 cm may be necessary. The height and position of the transseptal puncture can be lower for A1/P1 target and higher for A3/P3 target
- Biplane imaging (0°–30° and 90°–120°) is then used to guide the placement of 24F SGC which is advanced with a dilator over a stiff wire into the LA. The dilator of the SGC has an echogenic terminal end which appears like a stack of rings. Caution should be exercised to avoid the dilator tip touching the LA free wall. The dilator is removed once SGC tip is roughly 2 cm into the LA [Figure 5].
|Figure 4: Use of biplane imaging for guiding interatrial septal puncture. The left image shows bicaval view for superoinferior orientation whereas the right image shows the short-axis view for anteroposterior orientation. The yellow arrow points to the tenting produced by the septal puncture needle|
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|Figure 5: Positioning of the steerable guide catheter (yellow arrow) in the left atrium|
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[Additional file 1]
Video 1: Use of biplane imaging for guiding interatrial septal puncture. The left image shows bicaval view for superoinferior orientation whereas the right image shows the short-axis view for anteroposterior orientation.
Guiding safe steering of the guide catheter and the clip delivery system in the left atrium
The CDS is advanced through the SGC into the LA. The advancing CDS can be deflected in mediolateral or anteroposterior directions using the external controls present at the SGC handle. Continuous TEE imaging is required while steering the SGC and manipulating CDS so that the LA free wall is not injured.
- Biplane 2D TEE (four-chamber view as the primary image) with advancement/withdrawal of the probe (as needed) is used to visualize the SGC and CDS tips and guide the advancement of CDS. The CDS is advanced out of the SGC until the straddling of the radiopaque markers is seen on the fluoroscopy
- The operator should be immediately warned if the clip end is in proximity to the LA roof, LA free wall, pulmonary vein ostium, or the coumadin ridge
- The CDS is then steered down toward the mitral valve orifice [Figure 6]. As the CDS is flexed, its tip moves from its superior location in the LA to the mitral valve orifice, passing en route the ostium of the left upper pulmonary vein and the coumadin ridge but without touching these structures. Either a biplane imaging or a live multiplanar imaging (MPR view in Philips system and Flexi-slice in the General Electric system) with simultaneous three orthogonal planes + one 3D en face view of the mitral valve can be used to monitor the distal tip of the CDS
- The CDS tip should be positioned precisely at the target segments of the mitral leaflets. Biplane imaging with bicommissural view (45°–60°) for medial-lateral orientation and LVOT view (120°–135°) for anteroposterior orientation is used for guiding this step [Figure 7] and [Video 2]a, [Video 2]b. Continuous monitoring in this biplane view is needed to ensure correct positioning of the CDS at the origin of the MR jet.
|Figure 6: Trajectory of the clip delivery system in the left atrium in the echocardiographic (left) and the fluoroscopic images|
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|Figure 7: Echocardiographic views for aligning the MitraClip with the mitral leaflet target site. (a) Bicommissural view for medial-lateral orientation, (b) left ventricular outflow tract view for anteroposterior orientation, and (c) the three-dimensional en face view from the left atrial aspect for aligning the clip perpendicular to the mitral leaflet coaptation line|
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Video 2: MitraClip with open clip arms, being aligned with the mitral leaflet target site. Biplane imaging is used to simultaneously display the bicommissural and the left ventricular outflow tract views. [Additional file 2](a) Without color, [Additional file 3](b) with color Doppler.
Guiding the alignment of the clip arms
Under CFD guidance, the CDS is positioned at the origin of the major MR jet so that it splits the jet and then, the clip arms are opened [Figure 8] and [Video 2]b. The 3D TEE en face view of the mitral valve (from the LA aspect) is crucial at this juncture to orient the clip arms perfectly perpendicular to the mitral leaflet closure line, [Figure 7]c, [Figure 7]9 and [Video 3]a, [Video 3]b, [Video 3]c. In the 3D en face mitral valve view, aorta is positioned at 12 o'clock position, IAS at 3 o'clock position, and the LA appendage at 10 o'clock position.
|Figure 8: MitraClip with open clip arms, being aligned with the mitral leaflet target site. Biplane imaging is used to simultaneously display the bicommissural and the left ventricular outflow tract views. (a) Without color, (b) with color Doppler|
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[Additional file 4]
Video 3: (a) Three-dimensional en face view from the left atrial aspect for aligning the clip perpendicular to the mitral leaflet coaptation line, [Additional file 5](b) the clip is complete off-axis, [Additional file 6] (c) the clip has already been advanced into the left ventricle and is being visualized through the mitral valve leaflets by reducing the image gain.
- For a successful grasp, it is crucial to ensure that the clip arms are exactly perpendicular to the coaptation line at the grasping site. To achieve this, the clip with arms opened is visualized in the 3D en face mitral valve view and the operator then rotates the clip clockwise or anticlockwise to orient it in the proper direction. The clip is oriented perpendicular (12 o'clock–6 o'clock) for A2–P2 target, slight clockwise (1 o'clock–7 o'clock) for A1–P1 target, and slight anticlockwise (11 o'clock–5 o'clock) for A3–P3 target [Figure 7]c
- Proper positioning of the clip in relation to the MR jet is confirmed using 3D CFD
- Once the proper orientation of the clip arms is achieved, the clip arms are closed to 60° and the clip is then advanced into the LV in the LVOT view below the mitral valve and the clip arms are opened once again. Both the clip arms should be seen in this LVOT view
- The torquing of the clip arms is avoided in the subvalvar area to prevent damage and entanglement of the chordae. To reassess the perpendicularity of the clip arms to the coaptation line, the 3D en face view of the mitral valve is obtained again, and the ultrasound gain is reduced such that the clip arms are visualized through the mitral leaflets. Alternately, one can use the transgastric short-axis view to locate the clip arms.
Once the clip arms are aligned in the desired orientation, the next step is to grasp the leaflets, which is the most crucial step. The 2D LVOT view is used for guiding this maneuver., In some challenging cases, various maneuvers such as breath-hold (in case of large translational motion of the heart), pacing (for leaflets with severe tenting), or inducing bradycardia with intravenous esmolol/adenosine (for leaflets with large flail gap) may be necessary., The recent generation of TEER devices allows for independent grasping of AML and PML by separate control of each of the clip arms.
- While continuously imaging in the LVOT (120°–135°) view, the CDS with open clip arms is slowly withdrawn toward the mitral valve [Figure 10]. From the original LVOT long-axis grasping view (120°), the multiplane angle may need to be increased by approximately 10°–40° for A1/P1 pathologies and reduced by approximately 10°–40° for pathologies in the A3/P3 segment
- The leaflets “lapping” into the clip arms in both systole and diastole should be watched for [Video 4]. Adequate leaflet insertion within the clips should be confirmed using multiple 2D views from 0° to 30°–60°–90°–145°. The last time that the leaflet tips can be well visualized is before the grippers come down and the clip arms are closed. The grippers are lowered when the adequate leaflet insertion (ideally >4 mm) of both the leaflets in the clip arms is confirmed. Lowering of the grippers traps the leaflet tissue between the gripper and the corresponding clip arm
- Back in the 120°–135° LVOT view, once the grippers are seen lowered, both the leaflets should appear taut over the clip arms with minimal lift
- The clip arms are closed under fluoroscopic imaging [Figure 11]. Single leaflet detachment can occur in 1%–5% of cases. Less than 2 mm insertion of the leaflet in the clip arm may increase the risk of clip detachment. To avoid this, it is important to ensure that adequate length of the leaflets is captured within the closed clip. One method to confirm this is to measure the PML and AML lengths in the four-chamber or LVOT view before the procedure and then remeasure the free leaflet length (outside the clip) in the same views after the clip closure. The difference between the two measurements indicates the captured length of the leaflets.
|Figure 9: (a) Three-dimensional en face view from the left atrial aspect for aligning the clip perpendicular to the mitral leaflet coaptation line, (b) the clip is complete off-axis, (c) the clip has already been advanced into the left ventricle and is being visualized through the mitral valve leaflets by reducing the image gain|
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|Figure 11: Closing the clip arms under fluoroscopic (left image) and echocardiographic (right image) guidance|
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[Additional file 7]
Video 4: Leaflet grasping in the left ventricular outflow tract view.
Assessment of mitral regurgitation reduction and exclusion of mitral stenosis
Before releasing the clip, the residual MR severity should be evaluated thoroughly and the requirement, feasibility, and tentative location of the second clip are ascertained depending on the mechanism of the residual MR [Video 5]a and [Video 5]b. The same is checked once again after the clip has been released [Video 6]a and [Video 6]b.
Video 5: Verifying good leaflet capture and reduction of mitral regurgitation prior to clip deployment. [Additional file 8](a) Without color, [Additional file 9](b) with color Doppler.
Video 6: Checking adequacy of leaflet capture, clip stability, and reduction of mitral regurgitation after the clip deployment. [Additional file 10](a) Four-chamber view, [Additional file 11](b) left ventricular outflow tract view.
- 2D and 3D TEE CFD in all the standard views is used to qualitatively estimate the severity of residual MR. The vena contracta and PISA-derived EROA are not validated. However, the presence of PISA on CFD suggests significant MR
- The best way to assess the hemodynamic effect of reduction in MR on LA pressure is to perform PW spectral Doppler of left and right superior pulmonary veins [Figure 12]. No systolic flow reversal and restoration of systolic forward flow or increase in the systolic forward flow from the preprocedural status are the most robust indicators of significant reduction of MR
- The reduction of V-wave height and mean LA pressure on the invasive hemodynamic pressure tracing also confirm reduction in the MR severity
- LV stroke volume should be ascertained using PW Doppler at the LVOT in the 2D TEE transgastric view. If the LVOT velocity time integral postprocedure is more than the preprocedure, then it indirectly suggests a reduction in MR volume and augmentation of forward flow
- 3D TEE CFD can be used to compute mitral and aortic stroke volume and residual regurgitant volume and fraction
- The insertion of both the leaflets in the clip arms should be confirmed. The presence of any significant MR jet on either side of the clip should be looked for in various views and with the clip arms loosened and retightened. It may be necessary to reposition or upsize the clip to achieve satisfactory reduction of MR
- If there is a significant MR jet on either side of the clip or a significant MR jet emerges at a new location, then an additional clip may be necessary. If the MR increases in severity and changes its characteristics, then one should carefully look for any leaflet tear, single leaflet detachment, or chordal rupture
- Before deploying the second clip, the mean mitral gradient should be checked using PW Doppler and the MVA is calculated by planimetry. Planimetry is performed in mid-diastole, either in the 2D transgastric view or in the 3D en face view. The deployment of MitraClip converts a single-orifice mitral valve into a double orifice valve [Figure 13 and Video 7]. Areas of the two mitral valve orifices are measured separately and added to yield the total MVA. Ideally, the mean mitral gradient should be <4 mmHg and MVA >2 cm2. The mean mitral valve gradient above 5 mmHg and MVA <1.5 cm2 are associated with higher long-term mortality[7-9]
- In the presence of a large flail gap/width or coaptation defect, “zip-and-clip'' technique can be used. The first clip is placed lateral or medial to the largest coaptation defect to reduce (partially zip) the coaptation gap/width, which makes it amenable to deploy additional clips at the desired location
- The clip should not be released if the mean mitral gradient is >5 mmHg or the mitral valve area by planimetry is <1.5–2 cm2. Similarly, any additional clip should be avoided if the mean gradient is >4 mmHg or the mitral valve area is <3–4 cm2
- For commissural defects, it is advisable to start clipping from the periphery of the mitral valve to the center so that the second clip can be placed with less difficulty. Imaging can be challenging for second clip deployment due to artifacts resulting from the first clip.
|Figure 12: Pulmonary vein flow pattern before (a) and after (b) the clip deployment. There is prominent systolic flow reversal before the procedure which is replaced by good forward systolic flow after the procedure|
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[Additional file 12]
Video 7: Double-orifice mitral valve after the clip deployment.
Assessment of interatrial shunt and procedural complications
Once the clip is released and the CDS is withdrawn and SGC is removed, it is necessary to assess for the complications. Potential TEER complications include death (1%–2.2%), cardiac tamponade (0.7%–1.9%), need for urgent cardiac surgery (2%), stroke (0%–1%), bleeding requiring transfusion (7.4%–13%), vascular injury (1.4%), partial leaflet detachment (2%), clip embolization (0.5%), and gastrointestinal injury (1%). Echocardiographically, the following should be looked for:
- Look for large ASD shunt in all the standard 2D TEE views of the IAS [Figure 14]. 3D TEE may be used to planimeter the defect size. If a significant ASD (>10 mm) is present at the SGC entry site, the closure of the defect with an ASD occluder device may be needed
- Look for the appearance of new pericardial effusion or change in the size of preexisting pericardial effusion.
|Figure 14: Residual atrial septal defect after the MitraClip procedure. (a) Color Doppler showing the left-to-right shunt through the defect, (b) pressure gradient across the defect|
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Procedural guidance for TEER requires frequent and prolonged TEE probe manipulation in the esophagus. Therefore, esophageal injury is more common in TEER than in other TEE-guided structural heart disease interventions. Hence, the patient should be monitored for postprocedure dysphagia (esophageal laceration) or retrosternal chest pain (pneumomediastinum). The latter can be confirmed with plain chest computed tomography.
TTE is the main modality for postprocedure follow-up. Imaging at regular intervals is required to evaluate for any residual/new MR, transmitral gradient, LV filling pressures, pulmonary hypertension, and LV systolic function while optimizing the guideline-directed medical therapy of heart failure.
The presence of moderate or severe residual MR, mean mitral valve gradient >5 mmHg, and a residual ASD after 6 months are all features associated with worse clinical outcomes.
| Conclusions|| |
Promising results with TEER in appropriately selected patients have resulted in increasing adoption of this therapeutic procedure for patients with severe degenerative or secondary MR with prohibitive surgical risk. Echocardiography plays a central role in patient selection and the intraprocedural guidance for this procedure. Meticulous echocardiographic guidance during the procedure is essential for the successful performance of this procedure. Not just the echocardiographer but even the interventionist needs to be well versed with echocardiographic imaging for this procedure. Hence, appropriate training of all the operators in TEE is essential, prior to embarking upon this procedure.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
Manish Bansal is an editorial board member of the Journal of The Indian Academy of Echocardiography & Cardiovascular Imaging. The article was subject to the journal's standard procedures, with peer review handled independently of this editor and their research groups.
There are no other conflicts of interest.
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[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8], [Figure 9], [Figure 10], [Figure 11], [Figure 12], [Figure 13], [Figure 14]